# Source code for pastas.stats.tests

```
"""The following methods may be used for the diagnostic checking of the residual time series of a calibrated (Pastas) model.
"""
from logging import getLogger
# Type Hinting
from typing import Tuple
from numpy import arange, cumsum, finfo, median, nan, sqrt, zeros
from pandas import DataFrame, Series, date_range, infer_freq
from scipy.stats import chi2, norm, normaltest, shapiro
from pastas.stats.core import acf as get_acf
from pastas.timeseries_utils import _get_time_offset, get_equidistant_series_nearest
logger = getLogger(__name__)
__all__ = [
"durbin_watson",
"ljung_box",
"runs_test",
"stoffer_toloi",
"diagnostics",
]
[docs]def durbin_watson(series: Series) -> float:
"""Durbin-Watson test for autocorrelation.
Parameters
----------
series: pandas.Series, optional
residuals series.
Returns
-------
dw_stat: float
The method returns the Durbin-Watson test statistic.
Notes
-----
The Durban Watson statistic ([durbin_1951]_, [Fahidy_2004]_) tests the
null-hypothesis that the correlation between the noise values at lag one equals
zero. The formula to calculate the Durbin-Watson statistic (DW) is:
.. math::
DW = \\frac{\\sum_{t=2}^{n}(\\upsilon_t-\\upsilon_{t-1}^2)}
{\\sum_{t=1}^{n}\\upsilon_t^2}
where $n$ is the number of values in the noise series. The test-statistic has a
range :math:`0 \\geq DW \\leq 4`, where values of $DW < 2$ indicate a positive
correlation and values of $DW > 2$ indicates negative autocorrelation. The
Durbin-Watson test requires a constant time interval of the noise series and
tests for autocorrelation at a lag of 1 time step.
**Considerations for this test:**
- The time series should have equidistant time steps.
- The Durbin-Watson test tests for autocorrelation at lag 1 but not for
larger time lags.
- The test statistic for this test is difficult to compute and is usually
obtained from pre-calculated tables.
References
----------
.. [durbin_1951] Durbin, J., & Watson, G. S. (1951). Testing for serial
correlation in least squares regression. II. Biometrika, 38(1/2), 159-177.
.. [Fahidy_2004] Fahidy, T. Z. (2004). On the Application of Durbin-Watson
Statistics to Time-Series-Based Regression Models. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
EDUCATION, 38(1), 22-25.
Examples
--------
>>> data = pd.Series(index=pd.date_range(start=0, periods=1000, freq="D"),
>>> data=np.random.rand(1000))
>>> result = ps.stats.durbin_watson(data)
"""
if not infer_freq(series.index):
logger.warning(
"The Durbin-Watson test should only be used for time series with "
"equidistant time steps."
)
rho = series.autocorr(lag=1) # Take the first value of the ACF
dw_stat = 2 * (1 - rho)
p = nan # NotImplementedYet
return dw_stat, p
[docs]def ljung_box(
series: Series, lags: int = 15, nparam: int = 0, full_output: bool = False
) -> Tuple[float, float]:
"""Ljung-box test for autocorrelation.
Parameters
----------
series: pandas.Series, optional
series to calculate the autocorrelation for that is used in the Ljung-Box test.
lags: int, optional
The maximum lag to compute the Ljung-Box test statistic for.
nparam: int, optional
Number of calibrated parameters in the model.
full_output: bool, optional
Return the result of the test as a boolean (True) or not (False).
Returns
-------
q_stat: float
The computed Q test statistic.
pval: float
The probability of the computed Q test statistic.
Notes
-----
The Ljung-Box test [Ljung_1978]_ tests the null-hypothesis that a time series are
independently distributed up to a desired time lag $k$ and is computed as follows:
.. math::
Q(k) = n (n + 2) \\sum_{k=1}^{h} \\frac{\\rho^2(k)}{n - k}
where :math:`\\rho_k` is the autocorrelation at lag $k$, $h$ is the maximum lag
used for calculation, and $n$ is the number of values in the noise series. The
computed $Q$-statistic is then compared to a critical value computed from a
:math:`\\chi^2_{\\alpha, h-p}` distribution with a significance level
:math:`\\alpha` and $h-p$ degrees of freedom, where $h$ is the number of lags and
$p$ the number of the noise model parameters.
**Considerations for this test:**
- The time series should have equidistant time steps. An adapted version
of the Ljung-Box test is available through ps.stats.stoffer_toloi.
- A potential problem of the Ljung-Box test is the low power of the test when
testing for a large number of lags using a small sample size $n$. It has been
suggested that suggested that :math:`k \\leq n/4` but also as low as :math:`k
\\leq n/20`. If we are using daily groundwater levels observations, and we want
to test for autocorrelation for lags up to one year (365 days) this means that
we need between 4 and ten years of data.
References
----------
.. [Ljung_1978] Ljung, G. and Box, G. (1978). On a Measure of Lack of Fit in Time
Series Models, Biometrika, 65, 297-303.
Examples
--------
>>> res = pd.Series(index=pd.date_range(start=0, periods=1000, freq="D"),
>>> data=np.random.rand(1000))
>>> stat, p = ps.stats.ljung_box(res, lags=15)
>>> if p > alpha:
>>> print("Failed to reject the Null-hypothesis, no significant"
>>> "autocorrelation. p =", p.round(2))
>>> else:
>>> print("Reject the Null-hypothesis. p =", p.round(2))
See Also
--------
pastas.stats.acf
This method is called to compute the autocorrelation function.
pastas.stats.stoffer_toloi
Similar method but adapted for time series with missing data.
"""
if not infer_freq(series.index):
logger.warning(
"Caution: The Ljung-Box test should only be used for time series with "
"equidistant time steps. Consider using ps.stats.stoffer_toloi instead."
)
acf = get_acf(series, lags=lags, bin_method="regular")
nobs = series.index.size
# Drop zero-lag from the acf and drop nan-values as k > 0
acf = acf.drop(0, errors="ignore").dropna()
lags = arange(1, len(acf) + 1)
q_stat = nobs * (nobs + 2) * cumsum(acf.values**2 / (nobs - lags))
dof = max(lags[-1] - nparam, 1)
pval = chi2.sf(q_stat, df=dof)
if full_output:
result = DataFrame(data={"Q Stat": q_stat, "P-value": pval}, index=acf.index)
return result
else:
return q_stat[-1], pval[-1]
[docs]def runs_test(series: Series, cutoff: str = "median") -> Tuple[float, float]:
"""Runs test for autocorrelation.
Parameters
----------
series: pandas.Series
Time series to test for autocorrelation.
cutoff: str or float, optional
String set to "mean", "median", or a float value to use as the cutoff.
Returns
-------
z_stat: float
Runs test statistic.
pval: float
p-value for the test statistic, based on a normal distribution.
Notes
-----
Wald and Wolfowitz developed [wald_1943]_ developed a distribution free test (
i.e., no normal distribution is assumed) to test for autocorrelation. This test
is also appropriate for non-equidistant time steps in the residuals time series.
The Null-hypothesis is that the residual time series is a random sequence of
positive and negative values. The alternative hypothesis is that they are
non-random. The test statistic is computed as follows:
.. math::
Z = \\frac{R-\\bar{R}}{\\sigma_R}
where $R$ is the number of runs, :math:`\\bar{R}` the expected number of runs and
:math:`\\sigma_R` the standard deviation of the number of runs. A run is defined
as the number of sequences of exclusively postitive and negative values in the
time series.
**Considerations for this test:**
- Test is also applicable to time series with non-equidistant time steps.
References
----------
.. [wald_1943] Wald, A., & Wolfowitz, J. (1943). An exact test for randomness in
the non-parametric case based on serial correlation. The Annals of
Mathematical Statistics, 14(4), 378-388.
Examples
--------
>>> res = pd.Series(index=pd.date_range(start=0, periods=1000, freq="D"),
>>> data=np.random.rand(1000))
>>> stat, pval = ps.stats.runs_test(res)
>>> if p > alpha:
>>> print("Failed to reject the Null-hypothesis, no significant"
>>> "autocorrelation. p =", p.round(2))
>>> else:
>>> print("Reject the Null-hypothesis")
"""
# Make dichotomous sequence
r = series.copy().to_numpy()
if cutoff == "mean":
cutoff = r.mean()
elif cutoff == "median":
cutoff = median(r)
elif isinstance(cutoff, float):
pass
else:
msg = """Cutoff criterion %s is not implemented. Cutoff should be 'mean',
'median', or a float value."""
logger.error(msg, cutoff)
raise NotImplementedError(msg % cutoff)
r[r > cutoff] = 1
r[r < cutoff] = 0
# Calculate number of positive and negative noise
n_pos = r.sum()
n_neg = r.size - n_pos
# Calculate the number of runs
runs = r[1:] - r[0:-1]
n_runs = sum(abs(runs)) + 1
# Calculate the expected number of runs and the standard deviation
n_neg_pos = 2.0 * n_neg * n_pos
n_runs_exp = n_neg_pos / (n_neg + n_pos) + 1
n_runs_std = (n_neg_pos * (n_neg_pos - n_neg - n_pos)) / (
(n_neg + n_pos) ** 2 * (n_neg + n_pos - 1)
)
# Calculate Z-statistic and pvalue
z_stat = (n_runs - n_runs_exp) / sqrt(n_runs_std)
pval = 2 * norm.sf(abs(z_stat))
return z_stat, pval
[docs]def stoffer_toloi(
series: Series,
lags: int = 15,
nparam: int = 0,
freq: str = "D",
snap_to_equidistant_timestamps: bool = False,
) -> Tuple[float, float]:
"""Adapted Ljung-Box test to deal with missing data [stoffer_1992]_.
Parameters
----------
series: pandas.Series
Time series to compute the adapted Ljung-Box statistic for.
lags: int, optional
the number of lags to compute the statistic for. Only lags for which a
correlation is computed are used.
nparam: int, optional
Number of parameters of the noisemodel.
freq: str, optional
String with the frequency to resample the time series to.
snap_to_equidistant_timestamps : bool, optional
if False (default), a sample is taken from series with equidistant timesteps
using pandas' reindex. Only values are kept that lie on those equidistant
timestamps. If True, an equidistant time series is created taking as many
values as possible from the original series which are then snapped to the
nearest equidistant timestamp.
Returns
-------
qm: float
Adapted Ljung-Box test statistic.
pval: float
p-value for the test statistic, based on a chi-squared distribution.
Notes
-----
Stoffer and Toloi [stoffer_1992]_ extended the Ljung-Box test to also work with
missing data. The test statistic is computed as follows:
.. math ::
Q_k = n^2 \\sum_{k=1}^{h} \\frac{\\hat{\\rho}_k^2}{n-k}
where :math:`\\hat{\\rho}_k` is the autocorrelation for lag $k$. When the
residual time series have non-equidistant time steps it is recommended to use
this test over the original Ljung-Box test.
The Stoffer-Toloi test is strictly an adapted version of the Ljung-Box test to
deal with missing data in a time series and not a time series with
non-equidistant time steps. This means that the time series is updated to an
equidistant time series by filling nan-values.
**Considerations for this test:**
- Test is also applicable to irregular time series.
- The time step has to be chosen (e.g., Days). This should not be smaller than
the smallest time step or the test will most likely fail to reject $H_0$ anyway.
References
----------
.. [stoffer_1992] Stoffer, D. S., & Toloi, C. M. (1992). A note on the
Ljung—Box—Pierce stoffer_toloi statistic with missing data. Statistics &
probability letters, 13(5), 391-396.
Examples
--------
>>> data= pd.Series(index=pd.date_range(start=0, periods=1000, freq="D"),
>>> data=np.random.rand(1000))
>>> stat, p = ps.stats.stoffer_toloi(noise, lags=15, freq="D")
>>> if p > alpha:
>>> print("Failed to reject the Null-hypothesis, no significant"
>>> "autocorrelation. p =", p.round(2))
>>> else:
>>> print("Reject the Null-hypothesis")
See Also
--------
pastas.timeseries_utils.get_equidistant_series_nearest
"""
if snap_to_equidistant_timestamps:
# create equidistant time series snapping values from the original series to
# the nearest equidistant timestamp. No values are duplicated and data loss
# is minimized.
s = get_equidistant_series_nearest(series, freq, minimize_data_loss=True)
else:
# get equidistant sample from original time series, checks which time offset
# is the most common to maximize the number of values taken from the original
# series.
t_offset = _get_time_offset(series.index, freq).value_counts().idxmax()
new_idx = date_range(
series.index[0].floor(freq) + t_offset,
series.index[-1].floor(freq) + t_offset,
freq=freq,
)
s = series.reindex(new_idx)
# warn if more than 10% of data is lost in sample
if s.dropna().index.size < (0.9 * series.dropna().index.size):
msg = (
"While selecting equidistant values from series with `as_freq` more "
"than 10 %% of values were dropped. Consider setting "
"`make_equidistant` to True."
)
logger.warning(msg)
nobs = s.size
z = (s - s.mean()).fillna(0.0)
y = z.to_numpy()
yn = s.notna().to_numpy()
dz0 = (y**2).sum() / nobs
da0 = (yn**2).sum() / nobs
de0 = dz0 / da0
# initialize, compute all correlation up to one year.
nlags = 365 # Hard-coded for now
dz = zeros(nlags)
da = zeros(nlags)
de = zeros(nlags)
for i in range(0, nlags):
hh = y[: -i - 1] * y[i + 1 :]
dz[i] = hh.sum() / nobs
hh = yn[: -i - 1] * yn[i + 1 :]
da[i] = hh.sum() / (nobs - i - 1)
if abs(da[i]) > finfo(float).eps:
de[i] = dz[i] / da[i]
re = de / de0
# remove correlation where no observations are available (de = 0)
da = da[re != 0][:lags]
re = re[re != 0][:lags]
k = arange(1, len(re) + 1)
# Compute the Q-statistic
qm = nobs**2 * sum(da * re**2 / (nobs - k))
dof = max(len(k) - nparam, 1)
pval = chi2.sf(qm, df=dof)
return qm, pval
[docs]def diagnostics(
series: Series,
alpha: float = 0.05,
nparam: int = 0,
lags: int = 15,
stats: tuple = (),
float_fmt: str = "{0:.2f}",
) -> DataFrame:
"""Methods to compute various diagnostics checks for a time series.
Parameters
----------
series: pandas.Series
Time series to compute the diagnostics for.
alpha: float, optional
significance level to use for the hypothesis testing.
nparam: int, optional
Number of parameters of the noisemodel.
lags: int, optional
Maximum number of lags (in days) to compute the autocorrelation tests for.
stats: tuple, optional
Tuple with the diagnostic checks to perform. Not implemented yet.
float_fmt: str
String to use for formatting the floats in the returned DataFrame.
Returns
-------
df: Pandas.DataFrame
DataFrame with the information for the diagnostics checks. The final column
in this DataFrame report if the Null-Hypothesis is rejected. If H0 is not
rejected (=False) the data is in agreement with one of the properties of
white noise (e.g., normally distributed).
Notes
-----
Different tests are computed depending on the regularity of the time step of the
provided time series. pd.infer_freq is used to determined if the time steps are
regular.
Examples
--------
>>> data = pd.Series(index=pd.date_range(start=0, periods=1000, freq="D"),
>>> data=np.random.rand(1000))
>>> ps.stats.diagnostics(data)
Out[0]:
Checks Statistic P-value Reject H0
Shapiroo Normality 1.00 0.86 False
D'Agostino Normality 1.18 0.56 False
Runs test Autocorr. -0.76 0.45 False
Durbin-Watson Autocorr. 2.02 nan False
Ljung-Box Autocorr. 5.67 1.00 False
In this example, the Null-hypothesis is not rejected and the data may be assumed
to be white noise.
"""
cols = ["Checks", "Statistic", "P-value"]
df = DataFrame(index=stats, columns=cols)
# Shapiroo-Wilk test for Normality
stat, p = shapiro(series)
df.loc["Shapiroo", cols] = "Normality", stat, p
# D'Agostino test for Normality
stat, p = normaltest(series)
df.loc["D'Agostino", cols] = "Normality", stat, p
# Runs test for autocorrelation
stat, p = runs_test(series)
df.loc["Runs test", cols] = "Autocorr.", stat, p
# Do different tests depending on time step
if infer_freq(series.index):
# Ljung-Box test for autocorrelation
stat, p = ljung_box(series, nparam=nparam, lags=lags)
df.loc["Ljung-Box", cols] = "Autocorr.", stat, p
# Durbin-Watson test for autocorrelation
stat, p = durbin_watson(series)
df.loc["Durbin-Watson", cols] = "Autocorr.", stat, p
else:
# Stoffer-Toloi for autocorrelation
stat, p = stoffer_toloi(series, nparam=nparam, lags=lags)
df.loc["Stoffer-Toloi", cols] = "Autocorr.", stat, p
df["Reject H0 ($\\alpha$={:.2f})".format(alpha)] = df.loc[:, "P-value"] < alpha
df.loc[:, "P-value"] = df.loc[:, "P-value"].apply(float_fmt.format)
df.loc[:, "Statistic"] = df.loc[:, "Statistic"].apply(float_fmt.format)
return df
```